The worldwide semiconductor community faces increasingly difficult challenges as it moves into the manufacturing of chips with feature sizes approaching 100 nm and beyond. The magnitude of these challenges demands special attention from the metrology and analytical measurements community. New paradigms must be found. Adequate research and development for new metrology concepts are urgently needed. Topics include: integrated circuit history, challenges and overviews, front end, lithography, interconnect and back end, and critical analytical techniques. Characterization and metrology are key enablers for developing new semiconductor technology and in improving manufacturing. This book summarizes major issues and gives critical reviews of important measurement techniques that are crucial to continue the advances in semiconductor technology. It covers major aspects of process technology and most characterization techniques for silicon research, including development, manufacturing, and diagnostics. The editors believe that this book of collected papers provides a concise and effective portrayal of industry characterization needs and the way they are being addressed by industry, academia, and government to continue the dramatic progress in semiconductor technology. Hopefully, it will also provide a basis for stimulating advances in metrology and new ideas for research and development.
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